Levels of Recitation
There is no doubt that the speed of the human mouth in recitation has the possibility of being changed from slow to fast and still faster. That which the human ear can recognize from those are three types:
· Slowness in recitation
· Speed in recitation
· Moderate speed in recitation (in between)
This is the same way the human eye can determine the colour red, and from the computer it is possible to produce thousands of shades of red. And these shades differ from each other in minute variations. But the eye can only recognize three shades: red, light red and dark red; or blue, light blue, and dark blue.
So also for the human ear, there are a multitude of speeds of recitation. But the human ear can only recognize it as a slow recitation, a fast recitation and a moderate recitation (neither fast nor slow).
Speeds of recitation سرعات القراءة القرأنية · التحقيق: البطء من غير تمطيط (slowness without elongation)
· التدوير: التوسط (moderation in recitation)
· الحدر: السرعة من غير دمج و يعمها (الترتيل) (fastness without merging of the letters)
· الترتيل: هو التجويد الحروف
At Tahqeeq The scholars have named slow (saree’ah) recitation as At Tahqeeq. It means ease and care in articulating and pronouncing the letters. It is slowness without elongation.
Thus, when I recite the Qur’aan with care and ease, in order to slow down recitation, it is possible that I may lengthen a letter over its limit. This results in tamteet, elongation. Tamteet means giving rise to letters of madd from the harakaat.
We know in Arabic there are only 3 karakaat, fathah, dhammah and kasrah. The fathah has a timing, if it is exceeded, it gives rise to an alif. The dhammah has a timing, if it is exceeded, it gives rise to a waw. And a kesrah has a timing, if exceeded, it gives rise to a yaa. This is an atrocious mistake.
The action of exceeding the length of a harakah to give rise to an added letter is called At Tamteet. There is a fear that one who recites with tahqeeq will fall into this. This is why when we recite with tahqeeq we should be careful not to lengthen any letter or harakah longer than its timing so as to add a letter. If we extend any sound longer than its required length, then we give rise to new alifs, waws and yaas. Therefore, precision in tahqeeq is not to exceed the required length. For example, if he says kuuntum instead of kuntum – he extends the sound so as to produce an extra waw.
Al Hadr The scholars names the fast recitation as Al Hadr. If we say hadara fulaan, we mean, fulaan sped up. It is speed without merging the letters.
When reading with hadr, there is a danger of reducing the timing of the letters and inserting one into another. If one reads fast with a view to earning reward, or with a view to reviewing his memorization, for example, he wants to review 3-4 juz a day and has limited time for it. he must pronounce the letters and give them their rights. For example, he should not say ja’anna instead of ja’alna (by failing to pronounce the laam due to speed of recitation). He has done idghaam of the laam into the noon. Or instead of saying siraat allazi an’amta alayhim, he says siraat allazin’amta. Where is the hamza? Each letter must be clearly pronounced.
Therefore, there is no problem with reciting the Qur’aan with speed, on the condition that there is no idghaam (merging of some letters into others) or reduction in the required timing (‘eating/ swallowing’ part of the letter).
At Tadweer The scholars named the speed which is neither fast nor slow At Tadweer. It is moderation in recitation. It is neither as fast as Al Hadr nor as slow as Tahqeeq.
These are the 3 speeds of recitation.
At Tarteel The question arises, are all these 3 speeds of recitation Tarteel or does tarteel only apply to some of them?
وَرَتِّلِ الْقُرْآنَ تَرْتِيلًا
And rattil, as we understand it, is a command. We are ordered to recite the Qur’aan with tarteel. Tarteel in Arabic language means Saghrun Murattal. Saghr means mouth. An Arab would say this, if the teeth in a person’s mouth are all aligned one next to another, that there are no teeth overlapping others or hidden behind others. An Arab would consider this a privilege and refer to it as saghrun murattal.
In current times, we use the phrase At Taaboor, or Ar Ritl. This refers to a queue or line-up. For example, Ar Ratl is when students line up one beside/ behind the other.
So rattilil Qur’aan means pronounce each letter one by one. This means each letter is articulated individually. So if we say bismillaah, we will hear the sound of the ba and the seen and the meem.
Therefore, tarteel of Qur’aan means clearly pronouncing each letter. So we are commanded to recite with tarteel whether we recite fast, slow or moderately.
Therefore, tarteel is included in all speeds of recitation.
So man haqqaqa tilaawah (recites in tahqeeq), he must recite with tarteel. And man dawwaral tilaawah (recites in tadweer), he must recite with tarteel. And man hadara tilaawah (recites in hadr), he must recite with tarteel. Tarteel is articulating each letter individually.
Tarteel is Tajweed ul huroof wa ma’arifat ul wuqoof. It is Tajweed of the letters and knowledge of the stops.
Tarteel is required regardless of the speed of recitation.
And Allaah knows best.
Watch video here.
Making CLEAR mistakes اللَّحن الْجَلِى
Example: changing a letter or changing a sign (harakah), omitting or adding an extra letter of madd. These mistakes may change the meaning of the âyah. This type of mistake is harâm.
Examples: reading الضَّالِّينَ as الظالين, reading ثُمَّ as ثومَّ, reading أَنْعَمْتَ as أنعمتُ.
Making HIDDEN mistakes اللَّحن الخَفِى
Example: Ignoring ghunnah or subordinate madd.