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IQRASOFT.COM since 2002

About IqraSoft

At IQRASOFT.COM We Design your dreams on Internet. We are one of the best website designers and pioneer in website designing in Hyderabad, T.S.,One of the Largest Cities of India. We provide Web designing and development services. We design responsive websites which are compatible to be used at mobiles, tabs, laptops and desktop computers. we provide all in one solutions to your requirement and Needs. We are in real business since 2002. You can see our Registration Record Online by Clicking this Hyperlink. We consider cheapest with best quality service and promt delivery on time handover. you can trust us and checkout our performance and portfolio of work in different domains and specialities. We provide complete Digital Marketing Services and Training.Fastest Digital Solutions to your business and requirements. Convert Your Business into Digital format and go digital with lattest technologies and platform.

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Qira’at ul Quran Types- قِراءة القرآن الكريم‎

Qira’at Saba – Seven Qira’at-قراءات سبع (Edited)Restore original

Qira’at Ashra – Ten Qira’at-القراءات عشراء

  1. Assem (عاصم)
  2. Abu Amr elbasery (ِابو عمرو البصري)
  3. Nafia (نافع)
  4. Ibn Kathir (ابن كثير)
  5. Hamza (حمزة)
  6. ElKasaai (الكسائي)
  7. Ibn Ammer (ابن عامر)
  8. Abu Jaffar (ِابو جعفر)
  9. Yaqub (يعقوب)
  10. Khalaf (خلف)

What is the role of Uthman (may Allah be pleased with him) exactly concerning these readings?

Quran has been transmitted through the time by oral memorization and recitation on a hand of Scholar not through a book. To understand this, we have to understand the definitions.

Quran (القران): is the word of Allah that is recited verbally in any of the authentic readings. “Way of Reading – Qar’ah (plural: Qira’t)”. Please note that all the readings existed at the time of the prophet and the arc angel Jibreel (AS) taught prophet Mohamed all the authentic methods. The Quran was collected and recited in oral form in the last Ramadan of the prophet death. Arc angel Jibrel (AS) came to the prophet and made him recite the Quran twice in the last Ramadan of the prohet’s liefe. As a proof for this claim, the Hadith of Omar (RA):

I heard Hisham bin Hakim bin Hizam reciting Surat-al-Furqan in a way different to that of mine. Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) had taught it to me (in a different way). So, I was about to quarrel with him (during the prayer) but I waited till he finished, then I tied his garment round his neck and seized him by it and brought him to Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) and said, “I have heard him reciting Surat-al-Furqan in a way different to the way you taught it to me.” The Prophet (ﷺ) ordered me to release him and asked Hisham to recite it. When he recited it, Allah s Apostle said, “It was revealed in this way.” He then asked me to recite it. When I recited it, he said, “It was revealed in this way. The Qur’an has been revealed in seven different ways, so recite it in the way that is easier for you.”

حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ يُوسُفَ، أَخْبَرَنَا مَالِكٌ، عَنِ ابْنِ شِهَابٍ، عَنْ عُرْوَةَ بْنِ الزُّبَيْرِ، عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ عَبْدٍ الْقَارِيِّ، أَنَّهُ قَالَ سَمِعْتُ عُمَرَ بْنَ الْخَطَّابِ ـ رضى الله عنه ـ يَقُولُ سَمِعْتُ هِشَامَ بْنَ حَكِيمِ بْنِ حِزَامٍ، يَقْرَأُ سُورَةَ الْفُرْقَانِ عَلَى غَيْرِ مَا أَقْرَؤُهَا، وَكَانَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم أَقْرَأَنِيهَا، وَكِدْتُ أَنْ أَعْجَلَ عَلَيْهِ، ثُمَّ أَمْهَلْتُهُ حَتَّى انْصَرَفَ، ثُمَّ لَبَّبْتُهُ بِرِدَائِهِ فَجِئْتُ بِهِ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَقُلْتُ إِنِّي سَمِعْتُ هَذَا يَقْرَأُ عَلَى غَيْرِ مَا أَقْرَأْتَنِيهَا، فَقَالَ لِي ‏”‏ أَرْسِلْهُ ‏”‏‏.‏ ثُمَّ قَالَ لَهُ ‏”‏ اقْرَأْ ‏”‏‏.‏ فَقَرَأَ‏.‏ قَالَ ‏”‏ هَكَذَا أُنْزِلَتْ ‏”‏‏.‏ ثُمَّ قَالَ لِي ‏”‏ اقْرَأْ ‏”‏‏.‏ فَقَرَأْتُ فَقَالَ ‏”‏ هَكَذَا أُنْزِلَتْ‏.‏ إِنَّ الْقُرْآنَ أُنْزِلَ عَلَى سَبْعَةِ أَحْرُفٍ فَاقْرَءُوا مِنْهُ مَا تَيَسَّرَ ‏”‏‏.‏

And the other Hadith:

Gabriel used to repeat the recitation of the Qur’an with the Prophet (ﷺ) once a year, but he repeated it twice with him in the year he died. The Prophet (ﷺ) used to stay in Itikaf for ten days every year (in the month of Ramadan), but in the year of his death, he stayed in Itikaf for twenty days.

حَدَّثَنَا خَالِدُ بْنُ يَزِيدَ، حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو بَكْرٍ، عَنْ أَبِي حَصِينٍ، عَنْ أَبِي صَالِحٍ، عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، قَالَ كَانَ يَعْرِضُ عَلَى النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم الْقُرْآنَ كُلَّ عَامٍ مَرَّةً، فَعَرَضَ عَلَيْهِ مَرَّتَيْنِ فِي الْعَامِ الَّذِي قُبِضَ، وَكَانَ يَعْتَكِفُ كُلَّ عَامٍ عَشْرًا فَاعْتَكَفَ عِشْرِينَ فِي الْعَامِ الَّذِي قُبِضَ ‏{‏فِيهِ‏}‏

Mushaf (المصحف): is the written form of the Quran or the book. Uthman (RA) ordered the collection for the 2nd time of the know Quran into a book to maintain the knowledge in written format as well. And to help those from non Arab origins, who joined Islam recently, to be able to read and learn. The reason he burnt all the other sources is to maintain a revised and authentic version of the Mushaf. Please note that first time the Quran was collected in written format was at the time of Abu Bakr (First Caliph). The difference between the 2 version is the quality of the writing and the materials used for the book but the content was the same as they were collected by the same person (Zaid Ibn Thabet). I could go into details of the process Zaid had followed to authenticate the collection of each verse in the Quran but this is irrelevant to this question. The reason Abu Bakr ordered the collection of the Mushaf is that there is a large number of the holder (memorizers) of the Quran whom had martyred in the battle of Yamamah and Abu Bakr was worried that he might Quran by lost with the death of the memorizers.

The Mushaf that was collected by Uthman incorporated all the readings of the Quran. Please note that this Mushaf didn’t have dots that are present in the current Arabic language letters. And that how the Arabic letters were written at that time. You might ask how would they know how to differentiate between the words? The answer it was kind of understanding that an arab would right away spot the word and understand the actual mapping. Dots were introduced latter in the time of Aummiat’s Caliphate because the people of non-arab background didn’t recognize the writing.

What does a reading of Quran means? Does that mean we have different versions of the Quran?

Reading of Quran: is a set of rules that guides the reader on how he or she could pronounce the Quran which includes the how use your mouth, tounge extensive to generate a specific sound.

There are very few differences in words between some of the readings of the Quran based on Uthman’s Mushaf. This difference come from the location of the dot like the letters: ج, ح, خ

As you see the above letters, the only difference is the location of the dot. Educated Arab back then was able to recognize the word even if it didn’t have those dots.

The differences could be in 1 or 2 letters used in conjecture like “and: و “, etc…

But again those differences are minimal and they are known for a person who studies the readings of the Quran and none changes the meaning of the Quran by all means. It either strengthen the meaning or just a difference in pronunciation.

What is an authentic reading of the Quran? Scholars agreed that an authentic narration is a narration that has a strong chain or chains of known narrators from the narrator till prophet Mohamed (PBUH). These chains of narrations still exist till today for all the different readings of the Quran. The shorter the chain between the scholar till the prophet the stronger the narration. Today there is a person who have 27 or 26 narrators between him and the prophet. And that scholar lives in Egypt currently.

How the oral transmission works? To become a narrator, you have to be permitted “تجاز” or get an a permission of narration. To get that permission, you need to stay with scholar for a time in which you recite the whole Quran from Memory with correct pronunciation of each letter. Usually, the stronger the narrator “shorter chain”, the tougher he is to give you that “permission”. Because by giving you that permission, he gives you the allowance to transmit that knowledge. And you become one of the holders of the Quran. And this is a major task. It would take some people about 3 to 6 years with a Scholar to get that permission for one reading. The toughest is the first reading, once you get that it would becomes easier for the rest of the readings as there not to much differences. All you need to understand the differences and the difference in pronunciation. Please note that you get a permission per reading. Each reading require another permission.

What are the known Qirat? How many are they? And why they are named that way? At the time of the prophet, usually each companion kind of memorized the Quran using one of those Qirat. Once those companions started to teach the new comers to Islam, 10 major scholars became known and each with different reading based on whom from the companions and the followers of the companions taught them. Those scholars are:

  1. Assem (عاصم)
  2. Abu Amr elbasery (ِابو عمرو البصري)
  3. Nafia (نافع)
  4. Ibn Kathir (ابن كثير)
  5. Hamza (حمزة)
  6. ElKasaai (الكسائي)
  7. Ibn Ammer (ابن عامر)
  8. Abu Jaffar (ِابو جعفر)
  9. Yaqub (يعقوب)
  10. Khalaf (خلف)

After each of the major scholars mentioned above, each have 2 major students who became popular. The most popular reading in the muslim world right now is one called: Hafs from Assem (حفص عن عاصم) which means, the major student “Hafs” recited on Assem and he became a scholar him self.

There are 4 other readings which doesn’t have a continuous chain of narrations, so scholars study them for completion. It’s forbidden to pray with those 4. I was not able to get the names for those ones. Which makes the total 14 readings. But usually, people refer to the major 10 listed above.

Now, you might hear that they are only 7 (dropping the last 3 in the list above). The reason why, at the beginning of the Muslim conquest the 7 major scholars and their students stayed in a certain area while the other 3 were spread in a different area of the world until a scholar by the name of “Ibn el Jazerry (بن الجزري)” came and traveled through out the world and he found about the other 3 readings. He collected the 3 with 7 known make them 10 including the 2 major students of each which makes the total 20. As I mentioned there are 4 other readings are not authentic (not mentioned in the list above). “القرأت الشاذة”

References:

– https://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki

– https://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki (2)

– https://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki (3)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaJump to navigationJump to searchThis article is about the traditional schools of recitation. For rules governing pronunciation, see Tajwid. For hymnody, see Tarteel.

This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
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In IslamQirā’ah (Arabic: قِراءة‎, lit. ‘recitations or readings’) are “the different linguistic, lexical, phonetic, morphological and syntactical forms permitted with reciting the Quran”.[1] Differences between Qira’at are slight and include differences in stops,[Note 1] vowels,[Note 2] letters,[Note 3] andbut also sometimes entire words.[Note 4] (While called ‘recitations or readings’ or ‘verbalizations’, the Qira’at are not different ways of reading the same Quranic text, but (slightly) different texts of the Quran.[Note 5] They should not be confused with Tajwid, the rules of pronunciationintonation, and caesuras of the Quran.)

There are ten different recognised schools of qira’at, each one deriving its name from a noted Quran reciter or “reader” (qāriʾ pl. qāriʾūna).[Note 6] While these Quran readers lived in the second and third century of Islam, the scholar who first approved of the qira’at (Abu Bakr Ibn Mujāhid) lived a century later, so that the people who passed down the readings (the “transmitters”) are part of the system of qira’at (qira’at pass to riwaya who have turuq or lines of transmission, and passed down to wujuh i.e. the next line of transmission).[2] Thus it is more accurate to say about a reading of the Quran (for example Hafs, the reading used by most of the Muslim world), “this is the riwaya of Hafs”, and not “this is Hafs”.[2]

Qira’at are sometimes confused with Ahruf—both being variants of the Quran and both said to have seven different varieties.[5] However varieties of ahruf were discontinued by order of caliph Uthman sometime in the mid-7th century CE when “the Quran began to be read in only one harf (variation)”,[6] while the seven readings of the Qira’at were noted by Abu Bakr Ibn Mujāhid and canonized in the 8th century CE.[7] Even after centuries of Islamic scholarship, the variants of the Qira’at have been said (by Ammar Khatib and Nazir Khan) to continue “to astound and puzzle” Islamic scholars.[8]

The maṣḥaf Quran that is in “general use” throughout almost all the Muslim world today,[Note 7] is a 1924 Egyptian edition based on the Qira’at “reading of Ḥafṣ on the authority of `Asim”, (Ḥafṣ being the Rawi, or “transmitter”, and `Asim being the Qari or “reader”).[10]

Contents

History[edit]

According to Islamic belief, the Qur’an is recorded in the preserved tablet in heaven (al-lawh al-mahfooz),[11] and was revealed to the prophet Muhammad by the angel Gabriel.

Quranic orthography[edit]

*Rasm (in black) was the only script found in the earliest surviving fragments of the Quran. Most variations of the Quran that had different rasm were found in Ahruf variants.[12]
*I‘jām or nuqat al-I’jam (examples in red) was added in later Arabic (possibly around 700 CE)[13] so that consonants letters (such as these five letters ـبـ ـتـ ـثـ ـنـ ـيـ ) could be distinguished.
*Ḥarakāt or nuqaṭ ali’rab (examples in blue) indicate short vowels which have been used in the Quran but not in most written Arabic. Variations among Qira’at tend to involve only harakat.

Early manuscripts of the Qur’ān did not use diacritics either for vowels (Ḥarakāt) or to distinguish the different values of the rasm (I‘jām’) [see the graphic to the right], — or at least used them “only sporadically and insufficiently to create a completely unambigous text”.[14] These early manuscripts included the “official” copy of the Quran created by ‘Uthman, according to the Saudi Salafi website IslamQA:

When ‘Uthmaan made copies of the Qur’aan, he did so according to one style (harf), but he omitted the dots and vowel points so that some other styles could also be accommodated. So the Mus’haf that was copied in his time could be read according to other styles, and whatever styles were accommodated by the Mus’haf of ‘Uthmaan remained in use, and the styles that could not be accommodated fell into disuse. The people had started to criticize one another for reciting differently, so ‘Uthmaan united them by giving them one style of the Qur’aan.[5]

Gradual steps were taken to improve the orthography of the Quran, in the first century with dots to distinguish similarly-shaped consonants (predicessors to i‘jām), followed by marks (to indicate different vowels, like ḥarakāt) and nunation in different-coloured ink from the text (Abu’l Aswad ad-Du’alî (d. 69 AH/688 CE). (Not related to the colours used in the graphic to the right.) Later the different colours were replaced with marks used in written Arabic today.

Recitations[edit]

In the meantime, before the variations were finally committed entirely to writing, the Quran was preserved by recitation and recitations of the Quran were passed down from one or more prominent reciters of a style of narration who had memorized the Quran (known as hafiz) to the next generation. According to Okvath Csaba,

It was during the period of the Successors [successors of the companions of Muhammad, i.e. the generation of Muslims after them] and shortly thereafter that exceptional reciters became renowned as teachers of Qur’anic recitation in cities like MakkahMadinaKufaBasra, and greater Syria (al-Sham). They attracted students from all over the expanding Muslim state and their modes of recitations were then attached to their names. It is therefore commonly said that [for example] he recites according to the reading of Ibn Kathir or Nafi’; this, however, does not mean that these reciters are the originators of these recitations, their names have been attached to the mode of recitation simply because their rendition of the Prophetic manner of recitation was acclaimed for authenticity and accuracy and their names became synonymous with these Qur’anic recitations. In fact, their own recitation goes back to the Prophetic mode of recitation through an unbroken chain.[15]

Each reciter had variations in their tajwid rules and occasional words in their recitation of the Qur’an are different or of a different morphology (form of the word) with the same root. The different words compliment other recitations and add to the meaning, and are a source of exegesis.[16] Aisha Abdurrahman Bewley gives an example of a line of transmission line “you are likely to find … in the back of a Qur’an” from the Warsh harf, going backwards from Warsh to Allah: “‘the riwaya of Imam Warsh from Nafi’ al-Madini from Abu Ja’far Yazid ibn al-Qa’qa’ from ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abbas from Ubayy ibn Ka’b from the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, from Jibril, peace be upon him, from the Creator.'”[16]

The seven qira’at readings which are currently notable were selected in the fourth century by Abu Bakr Ibn Mujahid (died 324 AH, 936 CE) from prominent reciters of his time, three from Kufa and one each from MeccaMedina, and Basra and Damascus.[17] Later, the ten Qari of the recitations lived in the second and third century of Islam. (Their death dates span from 118 AH to 229 AH).

Each reciter recited to two narrators whose narrations are known as riwaya (transmissions) and named after its primary narrator (rawi, singular of riwaya). Each rawi has turuq (transmission lines) with more variants created by notable students of the master who recited them and named after the student of the master. Passed down from Turuq are wujuh: the wajh of so-and-so from the tariq of so-and-so. There are about twenty riwayat and eighty turuq.[2]

In the 1730s, Quran translator George Sale noted seven principal editions of the Quran, “two of which were published and used at Medina, a third at Mecca, a fourth at Cufa, a fifth at Basra, a sixth in Syria, and a seventh called the common or vulgar edition.” He states that “the chief disagreement between their several editions of the Koran, consists in the division and number of the verses.”[18]

Reciting[edit]

Abu Ubaid al-Qasim bin Salam (774 – 838 CE) was the first to develop a recorded science for tajwid (a set of rules for the correct pronunciation of the letters with all their qualities and applying the various traditional methods of recitation), giving the rules of tajwid names and putting it into writing in his book called al-Qiraat. He wrote about 25 reciters, including the 7 mutawatir reciters.[19] He made the reality, transmitted through reciters of every generation, a science with defined rules, terms, and enunciation.[20][21]

Abu Bakr Ibn Mujāhid (859 – 936 CE) wrote a book called Kitab al-Sab’ fil-qirā’āt. He is the first to limit the number of reciters to the seven known. Some scholars, such as Ibn al-Jazari, took this list of seven from Ibn Mujahid and added three other reciters (Abu Ja’far from Madinah, Ya’qub from Basrah, and Khalaf from Kufa) to form the canonical list of ten.[19][22]

Imam Al-Shatibi (1320 – 1388 CE) wrote a poem outlining the two most famous ways passed down from each of seven strong imams, known as ash-Shatibiyyah. In it, he documented the rules of recitation of Naafi’, Ibn Katheer, Abu ‘Amr, Ibn ‘Aamir, ‘Aasim, al-Kisaa’i, and Hamzah. It is 1173 lines long and a major reference for the seven qira’aat.[23]

Ibn al-Jazari (1350 – 1429 CE) wrote two large poems about Qira’at and tajwid. One was Durrat Al-Maa’nia (Arabic: الدرة المعنية‎) , in the readings of three major reciters, added to the seven in the Shatibiyyah, making it ten. The other is Tayyibat An-Nashr (Arabic: طيبة النشر‎), which is 1014 lines on the ten major reciters in great detail, of which he also wrote a commentary.

Seven qira’at[edit]

According to Aisha Abdurrahman Bewley and Quran eLearning, the seven qira’a are mutawatir (“a transmission which has independent chains of authorities so wide as to rule out the possibility of any error and on which there is consensus”).[2][24]

Qari (reader)Rawi (transmitter)
NameBornDiedFull nameDetailsNameBornDiedFull nameDetailsCurrent region
Nafi‘ al-Madani70 AH169 AH (785 CE)[7]Ibn ‘Abd ar-Rahman Ibn Abi Na’im, Abu Ruwaym al-LaythiPersian with roots from Isfahan. Is commonly confused with Nafi’ the mawla of Ibn Umar.Qalun120 AH220 AH (835 CE)[7]Abu Musa, ‘Isa Ibn Mina al-ZarqiClient of Bani ZuhrahLibya, Tunisia, and parts of Al-Andalus and Qatar
Warsh110 AH197 AH (812 CE)[7]‘Uthman Ibn Sa’id al-QutbiEgyptian; client of QurayshAl-Andalus, Algeria, Morocco, parts of Tunisia, West Africa and Sudan, and parts of Libya
Ibn Kathir al-Makki45 AH120 AH (738 CE)[7]‘Abdullah, Abu Ma’bad al-‘Attar al-DariPersianAl-Bazzi170 AH250 AH (864 CE)[7]Ahmad Ibn Muhammad Ibn ‘Abdillah, Abu al-Hasan al-BuzziPersian
Qunbul195 AH291 AH (904 CE)[7]Muhammad Ibn ‘Abd ar-Rahman, al-Makhzumi, Abu ‘AmrMeccan and Makhzumi (by loyalty)
Abu ‘Amr Ibn al-‘Ala’68 AH154 AH (770 CE)[7]Zuban Ibn al-‘Ala’ at-Tamimi al-Mazini, al-BasriAl-Duri150 AH246 AH (860 CE)[7]Abu ‘Amr, Hafs Ibn ‘Umar Ibn ‘Abd al-‘Aziz al-BaghdadiGrammarian, blindParts of Sudan and West Africa
Al-Susi?261 AH (874 CE)[7]Abu Shu’ayb, Salih Ibn Ziyad Ibn ‘Abdillah Ibn Isma’il Ibn al-Jarud ar-Riqqi
Ibn Amir ad-Dimashqi8 AH118 AH (736 CE)[7]‘Abdullah Ibn ‘Amir Ibn Yazid Ibn Tamim Ibn Rabi’ah al-YahsibiHisham153 AH245 AH (859 CE)[7]Abu al-Walid, Hisham ibn ‘Ammar Ibn Nusayr Ibn Maysarah al-Salami al-DimashqiParts of Yemen
Ibn Dhakwan173 AH242 AH (856 CE)[7]Abu ‘Amr, ‘Abdullah Ibn Ahmad al-Qurayshi al-Dimashqi
Aasim ibn Abi al-Najud?127 AH (745 CE)[7]Abu Bakr, ‘Aasim Ibn Abi al-Najud al-‘AsadiPersian (‘Asadi by loyalty)Shu’bah95 AH193 AH (809 CE)[7]Abu Bakr, Shu’bah Ibn ‘Ayyash Ibn Salim al-Kufi an-NahshaliNahshali (by loyalty)
Hafs90 AH180 AH (796 CE)[7]Abu ‘Amr, Hafs Ibn Sulayman Ibn al-Mughirah Ibn Abi Dawud al-Asadi al-KufiMuslim world generally
Hamzah az-Zaiyyat80 AH156 AH (773 CE)[7]Abu ‘Imarah, Hamzah Ibn Habib al-Zayyat al-TaymiPersian (Taymi by loyalty)Khalaf150 AH229 AH (844 CE)[7]Abu Muhammad al-Asadi al-Bazzar al-Baghdadi
Khallad?220 AH (835 CE)[7]Abu ‘Isa, Khallad Ibn Khalid al-BaghdadiQuraishi
Al-Kisa’i119 AH189 AH (804 CE)[7]Abu al-Hasan, ‘Ali Ibn Hamzah al-AsadiPersian (Asadi by loyalty)Al-Layth?240 AH (854 CE)[7]Abu al-Harith, al-Layth Ibn Khalid al-Baghdadi
Al-Duri150 AH246 AH (860 CE)Abu ‘Amr, Hafs Ibn ‘Umar Ibn ‘Abd al-‘Aziz al-BaghdadiTransmitter of Abu ‘Amr (see above)

Ten qira’at[edit]

Bewley notes a further three Mashhur (“these are slightly less wide in their transmission, but still so wide as to make error highly unlikely”).[2][24]

The three Mashhur Qiraat added to the seven are:

Qari (reader)Rawi (transmitter)
NameBornDiedFull nameDetailsNameBornDiedFull nameDetails
Abu Ja’far?130 AHYazid Ibn al-Qa’qa’ al-Makhzumi al-Madani‘Isa Ibn Wardan?160 AHAbu al-Harith al-MadaniMadani by style
Ibn Jummaz?170 AHAbu ar-Rabi’, Sulayman Ibn Muslim Ibn Jummaz al-Madani
Ya’qub al-Yamani117 AH205 AHAbu Muhammad, Ya’qub Ibn Ishaq Ibn Zayd Ibn ‘Abdillah Ibn Abi Ishaq al-Hadrami al-BasriClient of the HadramisRuways?238 AHAbu ‘Abdillah, Muhammad Ibn al-Mutawakkil al-Basri
Rawh?234 AHAbu al-Hasan, Rawh Ibn ‘Abd al-Mu’min, al-Basri al-HudhaliHudhali by loyalty
Khalaf150 AH229 AHAbu Muhammad al-Asadi al-Bazzar al-BaghdadiTransmitter of Hamza (see above)Ishaq?286 AHAbu Ya’qub, Ishaq Ibn Ibrahim Ibn ‘Uthman al-Maruzi al-Baghdadi
Idris189 AH292 AHAbu al-Hasan, Idris Ibn ‘Abd al-Karim al-Haddad al-Baghdadi

Other modes of recitation[edit]

In addition to the ten “recognized” or “canonical modes”[8][4] There are four other modes of recitation – Ibn Muhaysin, al-Yazeedi, al-Hasan and al-A‘mash—but at least according to one source (the Saudi Salafi site “Islam Question and Answer“), these last four recitations are “odd” (shaadhdh) — in the judgement of “the correct, favoured view, which is what we learned from most of our shaykhs”—and so are not recognized.[4]

Pani patti is an alternate accent/style specific to India.

Hafs ‘an ‘Asim[edit]

Main article: Hafs

One qira’a that has reached overwhelming popularity is the Hafs ‘an ‘Asim, specifically the standard Egyptian edition of the Qur’an first published on 10 July 1924 in Cairo. Its publication has been called a “terrific success”, and the edition has been described as one “now widely seen as the official text of the Qur’an”, so popular among both Sunni and Shi’a that the common belief among less well-informed Muslims is “that the Qur’an has a single, unambiguous reading”, namely the 1924 Cairo version.[25] Another source states that “for all practical purposes”, it is the one Quranic version in “general use” in the Muslim world today.[10][Note 8]

Among the reasons given for the overwhelming popularity of Hafs an Asim is that it is easy to recite and that Allah has chosen it to be widespread (Qatari Ministry of Awqaf and Islamic Affairs).[28] Ingrid Mattson credits mass-produced printing press mushaf with increasing the availability of the written Quran, but also with making one version widespread (not specifically Hafs ‘an ‘Asim) at the expense of diversity of qira’at.[29]

Gabriel Said Reynolds emphasizes that the goal of the Egyptian government in publishing the edition was not to delegitimize the other qira’at, but to eliminate variations found in Qur’anic texts used in state schools, and to do this they chose to preserve one of the fourteen qira’at “readings”, namely that of Hafs (d. 180/796) ‘an ‘Asim (d. 127/745).

Qira’at and Ahruf[edit]

Difference between them[edit]

Although both Qira’at (recitations) and Ahruf (styles) refer to variants of the Quran, they are not the same. Ahruf variants were more significant (involving differences in the consonants of some words of the Quran) and Caliph ‘Uthman is believed to have eliminated all but one,[13] so that the different qira’at come from just one of the seven Ahruf of the Quran.[5] The seven qira’at readings which are currently notable were selected by Abu Bakr Ibn Mujahid (died 324 AH, 936 CE) from prominent reciters of his time, three from Kufa and one each from MeccaMedina, and Basra and Damascus.[17] IslamQA website notes that while the number seven is associated with both qira’at and ahruf, the seven in the seven qira’at (al-qiraa’aat al-saba’) comes not from the Qur’an or Sunnah but from the “ijtihaad [independent reasoning] of Ibn Mujaahid“, who may have been tempted to arrive at that number by the fact that were seven ahruf.[5]

Bilal Philips writes that Caliph ‘Uthman eliminated six of the seven ahruf about half way through his reign, when confusion developed in the outlying provinces about the Quran’s recitation. Some Arab tribes boasted about the superiority of their ahruf, and rivalries began; new Muslims also began combining the forms of recitation out of ignorance. Caliph ‘Uthman decided to make official copies of the Quran according to the writing conventions of the Quraysh and send them with the Quranic reciters to the Islamic centres. His decision was approved by Sahaabah (companions), and all unofficial copies of the Quran were ordered destroyed; Uthman carried out the order, distributing official copies and destroying unofficial copies, so that the Quran began to be read in one harf, the same one in which it is written and recited throughout world today.[6]

Philips writes that Qira’at is primarily a method of pronunciation used in recitations of the Quran. These methods are different from the seven forms, or modes (ahruf), in which the Quran was revealed. The methods have been traced back to Muhammad through a number of Sahaabah who were noted for their Quranic recitations; they recited the Quran to Muhammad (or in his presence), and received his approval. The Sahaabah included:

Many of the other Sahaabah learned from them; master Quran commentator Ibn ‘Abbaas learned from Ubayy and Zayd.[30]

According to Philips, in the next generation of Muslims (referred to as Tabi’in) were many scholars who learned the methods of recitation from the Sahaabah and taught them to others. Centres of Quranic recitation developed in al-Madeenah, Makkah, Kufa, Basrah and Syria, leading to the development of Quranic recitation as a science. By the mid-eighth century CE, a large number of scholars were considered specialists in the field of recitation. Most of their methods were authenticated by chains of reliable narrators, going back to Muhammad. The methods which were supported by a large number of reliable narrators on each level of their chain were called mutawaatir, and were considered the most accurate. Methods in which the number of narrators were few (or only one) on any level of the chain were known as shaadhdh. Some scholars of the following period began the practice of designating a set number of individual scholars from the previous period as the most noteworthy and accurate. The number seven became popular by the mid-10th century, since it coincided with the number of dialects in which the Quran was revealed.[31]

Scriptural basis for seven Ahruf[edit]

Further information: Ahruf § Scriptural basis

While different ahruf or variants of the Quran are not mentioned in the Quran, hadith do mention them. According to Bismika Allahuma, proof of the seven ahruf is found in many hadith, “so much so that it reaches the level of mutawaatir.” One scholar, Jalaal ad-Deen as-Suyootee, claims that twenty-one traditions of Companions of the Prophet state “that the Qur’aan was revealed in seven ahruf”.[32] One famous hadith (reported in the Muwatta of Malik ibn Anas) has “Umar Ibn al-Khattab manhandling Hisham Ibn Hakim Ibn Hizam after what he (Umar) thinks is an incorrect reading of the Quran. When Umar hauls Hisham to the Prophet for chastisement, he is surprised to hear the Prophet pronouce “It was revealed thus”, after both Hisham’s and his (Umar’s) reading. Muhammad ends by saying: “It was revealed thus; this Quran has been revealed in seven Ahruf. You can read it in any of them you find easy from among them.”[33]

Disagreement[edit]

Javed Ahmad Ghamidi (and others) point out that Umar and Hisham belonged to the same tribe (the Quraysh), and members of the same tribe and would not have used different pronunciation. Ghamidi questions the hadith which claim “variant readings”, on the basis of Quranic verses ([Quran 87:6-7][Quran 75:16-19]), the Quran was compiled during Muhammad’s lifetime and questions the hadith which report its compilation during Uthman‘s reign.[34] Since most of these narrations are reported by Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri, Imam Layth Ibn Sa’d wrote to Imam Malik:[34][35]

And when we would meet Ibn Shihab, there would arise a difference of opinion in many issues. When any one of us would ask him in writing about some issue, he, in spite of being so learned, would give three very different answers, and he would not even be aware of what he had already said. It is because of this that I have left him – something which you did not like.

Abu ‘Ubayd Qasim Ibn Sallam (died 224 AH) reportedly selected twenty-five readings in his book. The seven readings which are currently notable were selected by Abu Bakr Ibn Mujahid (died 324 AH, 936 CE) at the end of the third century. It is generally accepted that although their number cannot be ascertained, every reading is Quran which has been reported through a chain of narration and is linguistically correct. Some readings are regarded as mutawatir, but their chains of narration indicate that they are ahad (isolate) and their narrators are suspect in the eyes of rijal authorities.[34]

Variations among readings[edit]

Examples of differences between readings[edit]

Most of the differences between the various readings involve consonant/diacritical marks (I‘jām) and vowels marks (Ḥarakāt), but not in the rasm or “skeleton” of the writing. The examples below show differences between the Hafs Qari and two others—Al-Duri and Warsh. All have differences in the consonantal/diacritical marking (and vowel markings), but only one has a difference in the rasm: “then it is what” v. “it is what”, where a “fa” consonant letter is added to the verse.Al-Duri and Ḥafs

ḤafsAl-DuriḤafsAl-Duriverse
وَيُكَفِّرُوَنُكَفِّرُand He will removeand We will removeAl-Baqara 2:271 (2:270 in Al-Duri)

The “He” in Hafs is referring to God and the “We” in Al-Duri is also referring to God, this is due to the fact that God refers to Himself in both the singular form and plural form by using the royal “We”.Ḥafs and Warsh

رواية ورش عن نافعرواية حفص عن عاصمḤafsWarshverse
يَعْمَلُونَتَعْمَلُونَyou dothey doAl-Baqara 2:85
مَا تَنَزَّلُمَا نُنَزِّلُWe do not send down…they do not come down…Al-Ḥijr 15:8
قُلقَالَhe saidSay!Al-Anbiyā’ 21:4
كَثِيرًاكَبِيرًاmightymultitudinousAl-Aḥzāb 33:68
بِمَافَبِمَاthen it is whatit is whatAl-Shura 42:30
نُدْخِلْهُيُدْخِلْهُHe makes him enterWe make him enterAl-Fatḥ 48:17[36][37]

Note the first difference in plurality in the first row, the “you” in Hafs refers to the actions of more than one person and the “They” in Warsh is also referring to the actions of more than one person. In the 2nd row “We” refers to God in Hafs and the “They” in Warsh refers to what is not being sent down by God (The Angels). In the last verse the “He” in Hafs is referring to God and the “We” in Warsh is also referring to God, this is due to the fact that God refers to Himself in both the singular form and plural form by using the royal “We”.

Questions & Doubts[edit]

According to scholars Ammar Khatib and Nazir Khan, “one aspect of the Qur’an” that after centuries of Islamic scholarship “continues to astound and puzzle researchers has been the fact that Qur’anic verses are recited in diverse ‘modes of recitation’ (qirāʾāt)”.[8]

Rationale[edit]

According to Oliver Leaman, “the origin” of the differences of qira’at “lies in the fact that the linguistic system of the Quran incorporates the most familiar Arabic dialects and vernacular forms in use at the time of the Revelation.”[1] According to Okvath Csaba, “Different recitations [different qira’at] take into account dialectal features of Arabic language …” [15]

Aisha Abdurrahman Bewley writes that “the different words” in the different Qiraat “compliment other recitations and add to the meaning, and are a source of exegesis.”[16] Ammar Khatib and Nazir Khan contend that “in certain cases” the differences in qirāʾāt “add nuances in meaning, complementing one another.”[8]

Oxford Islamic Studies Online writes that “according to classical Muslim sources”, the variations that crept up before Uthman created the “official” Quran “dealt with subtleties of pronunciations and accents (qirāʿāt) and not with the text itself which was transmitted and preserved in a culture with a strong oral tradition.”[38]

Questions[edit]

Other reports of what the Prophet said (as well as some scholarly commentary) seem to contradict the presence of variant readings — ahruf or qirāʾāt.[34]

Abu Abd Al-Rahman al-Sulami writes, “The reading of Abu BakrUmarUthman and Zayd ibn Thabit and that of all the Muhajirun and the Ansar was the same. They would read the Quran according to the Qira’at al-‘ammah. This is the same reading which was read out twice by the Prophet to Gabriel in the year of his death. Zayd ibn Thabit was also present in this reading [called] the ‘Ardah-i akhirah. It was this very reading that he taught the Quran to people till his death”.[39] According to Ibn Sirin, “The reading on which the Quran was read out to the prophet in the year of his death is the same according to which people are reading the Quran today”.[40]

Examining the hadith of Umar’s surprise in finding out “this Quran has been revealed in seven Ahruf”, Suyuti, a noted 15th-century Islamic theologian, concludes the “best opinion” of this hadith is that it is “mutashabihat“, i.e. its meaning “cannot be understood.”[41]

Doubts[edit]

Codification time controversy[edit]

Non-Muslim Islamic scholar Fred Donner argues (as of 2008) that the large number of qira’at stemming from early “regional traditions” of MedinaKufaBasraSyria, etc.; with variations in the rasm (usually consonants) “as well” as with vowelling,[42] suggests evidence not for qira’at being slight deviations from an original text developing over time from in the different pronunciation of different dialects; but for their being different Qurans that had not yet “crystalized into a single, immutable codified form … within one generation of Muhammad”.[42] Donner argues that there is evidence for both the hypotheses that the Quran was codified earlier than the standard narrative and for codification later.[42]

But Donner does agree with the standard narrative that despite the presence of “some significant variants” in the qira’at literature, there are not “long passages of otherwise wholly unknown text claiming to be Quran, or that appear to be used as Quran — only variations within a text that is clearly recognizable as a version of a known Quranic passage”.[43] Revisionist historian Michael Cook also states that the Quran “as we know it”, is “remarkably uniform” in the rasm.[44]

Criteria for Categorization[edit]

All accepted qira’at follow three basic rules:

  1. Conformity to the consonantal skeleton of the Uthmānic codex.
  2. Consistency with Arabic grammar.
  3. Authentic chain of transmission.

The qira’at that do not meet these conditions are called shaadh (anomalous/irregular). The other recitations reported from companions that differ from the Uthmānic codex may represent an abrogated or abandoned ḥarf, or a recitation containing word alterations for commentary or for facilitation for a learner. It is not permissible to recite the shaadh narrations in prayer, but they can be studied academically.[22]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ for example, in Surat al-Baqara (1): “Dhalika’l-Kitabu la rayb” or “Dhalika’l-Kitabu la rayba fih” [2]
  2. ^ an example being “suddan” or “saddan[2]
  3. ^ (due to different diacritical marks, for example, ya or ta (turja’una or yurja’una) or a word having a long consonant or not (a consonant will have a shadda making it long, or not have one).[2]
  4. ^ For example “fa-tabayyanu” or “fa-tathabbatu” in Q4.94[3]
  5. ^ most of the varieties are not commonly used but can be found on pdf with English translation at quranflash.com — https://app.quranflash.com/?en
  6. ^ According to one source (the Saudi Salafi site “Islam Question and Answer”), while there are four other modes of recitation in addition to the ten recognized ones, these are “odd (shaadhdh), according to scholarly consensus”:
    “The seven modes of recitation are mutawaatir according to consensus, as are the three others: the recitations of Abu Ja‘far, Ya‘qoob and Khalaf, according to the more correct view. In fact the correct, favoured view, which is what we learned from most of our shaykhs, is that the recitations of the other four – Ibn Muhaysin, al-Yazeedi, al-Hasan and al-A‘mash, are odd (shaadhdh), according to scholarly consensus.”
    The article then goes on to quote the medieval scholar An-Nawawi saying:
    ” it is not permissible to recite, in prayer or otherwise, according to an odd mode of recitation, because that is not Qur’an.”
    The article separates the ten qira’at into “the seven”: “The seven modes of recitation are mutawaatir according to the four imams and other leading Sunni scholars”;
    and “the three others” which are also mutawaatir, though apparently not having the same level of endorsement.[4]
  7. ^ about 95% according to Muslimprophets website.[9]
  8. ^ Some other versions with minor divergences, namely those of Warsh (d.197/812) ….circulate in the northwestern regions of African.[26][27]

Citations[edit]

  1. Jump up to:a b Kahteran, Nevad (2006). “Hafiz/Tahfiz/Hifz/Muhaffiz”. In Leaman, Oliver (ed.). The Qur’an: An Encyclopedia. Routledge. p. 233. Retrieved 4 July 2020.
  2. Jump up to:a b c d e f g h The Seven Qira’at of the Qur’an by Aisha Bewley
  3. ^ Younes, Munther (2019). Charging Steeds or Maidens Performing Good Deeds: In Search of the Original Qur’an. Routledge. p. 3. ISBN 9781351055000. Retrieved 2 July 2020.
  4. Jump up to:a b c “The seven modes of recitation are mutawaatir and it is not permissible to cast aspersions on them. Question 178120”Islam Question and Answer. 24 November 2015. Retrieved 2 July 2020.
  5. Jump up to:a b c d “The revelation of the Qur’aan in seven styles (ahruf, sing. harf). Question 5142”Islam Question and Answer. 28 July 2008. Retrieved 2 July 2020.
  6. Jump up to:a b Abu Ameenah Bilal Philips, Tafseer Soorah Al-Hujuraat, 1990, Tawheed Publications, Riyadh, pp. 28-29.
  7. Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u Shady Hekmat Nasser, Ibn Mujahid and the Canonization of the Seven Readings, p. 129. Taken from The Transmission of the Variant Readings of the Qur’an: The Problem of Tawaatur and the Emergence of ShawaadhdhLeidenBrill Publishers, 2012. ISBN 9789004240810
  8. Jump up to:a b c d Khatib, Ammar; Khan, Nazir (23 August 2019). “Variant Readings of the Qur’an”Yaqueen Institute. Retrieved 21 July 2020.
  9. ^ “Quran – Comparing Hafs & Warsh for 51 textual variants”Muslim prophets. Retrieved 29 October 2020.
  10. Jump up to:a b Böwering, “Recent Research on the Construction of the Quran”, 2008: p.74
  11. ^ “Lawh Mahfuz”Oxford Islamic Studies. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
  12. ^ Cook, The Koran, 2000: pp. 72-73.
  13. Jump up to:a b Donner, “Quran in Recent Scholarship”, 2008: pp. 35-36.
  14. ^ Bursi, Adam (2018). “Connecting the Dots: Diacritics Scribal Culture, and the Quran”Journal of the International Qur’anic Studies Association3: 111. doi:10.5913/jiqsa.3.2018.a005hdl:1874/389663JSTOR 10.5913/jiqsa.3.2018.a005.
  15. Jump up to:a b Csaba, Okvath (Winter 2014). “Ibn Mujahid and Canonical Recitations”Islamic Sciences12 (2). Retrieved 22 July 2020.
  16. Jump up to:a b c Bewley, Aisha. “The Seven Qira’at of the Qur’an”International Islamic University of Malaysia. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
  17. Jump up to:a b Cook, The Koran, 2000: p. 73
  18. ^ Sale, George (1891). “Preliminary Discourse, section 3”The Koran, Commonly Called the Alkoran of Mohammed. Frederick Warne and Co. p. 45.
  19. Jump up to:a b Ajaja, Abdurrazzak. “القراءات : The readings”.
  20. ^ el-Masry, Shadee. The Science of Tajwid. Safina Society. p. 8. Retrieved 30 March2020.
  21. ^ “What is Tajweed?”Online Quran Teachers. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
  22. Jump up to:a b Khan, Nazir; Khatib, Ammar. “The Origins of the Variant Readings of the Qur’an”Yaqeen Institute. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
  23. ^ “Ijazah in Ash-Shatibiyyah”Online Quran Teachers.
  24. Jump up to:a b “Qiraat”Quran eLearning. Retrieved 15 July 2020.
  25. ^ Reynolds, “Quranic studies and its controversies”, 2008: p. 2
  26. ^ QA. Welch, Kuran, EI2 5, 409
  27. ^ Böwering, “Recent Research on the Construction of the Quran”, 2008: p.84
  28. ^ “Popularity of the recitation of Hafs from ‘Aasim. Fatwa No: 118960”Islamweb. 9 March 2009. Retrieved 11 April 2020.
  29. ^ Mattson, Ingrid (2013). The Story of the Qur’an: Its History and Place in Muslim Life. John Wiley & Sons. p. 129. ISBN 9780470673492. Retrieved 11 April 2020.
  30. ^ Abu Ameenah Bilal Philips, Tafseer Soorah Al-Hujuraat, 1990, Tawheed Publications, Riyadh, pp. 29–30.
  31. ^ Abu Ameenah Bilal Philips, Tafseer Soorah Al-Hujuraat, 1990, Tawheed Publications, Riyadh, pp. 30.
  32. ^ BISMIKA ALLAHUMA TEAM (9 October 2005). “The Ahruf Of The Qur’aan”BISMIKA ALLAHUMA Muslim Responses to Anti-Islam Polemics. Retrieved 6 July 2020.
  33. ^ Malik Ibn AnasMuwatta, vol. 1 (Egypt: Dar Ahya al-Turath, n.d.), p. 201, (no. 473).
  34. Jump up to:a b c d Javed Ahmad GhamidiMizanPrinciples of Understanding the Qu’ranArchived 27 September 2007 at the Wayback MachineAl-Mawrid
  35. ^ Ibn Qayyim, I’lam al-Muwaqqi’in, vol. 3 (Beirut: Dar al-Fikr, n.d.), p. 96.
  36. ^ رواية ورش عن نافع – دار المعرفة – دمشق Warsh Reading, Dar Al Maarifah Damascus
  37. ^ رواية حفص عن عاصم – مجمع الملك فهد – المدينة Ḥafs Reading, King Fahd Complex Madinah
  38. ^ “Qurʿān”Oxford Islamic Studies. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
  39. ^ Zarkashi, al-Burhan fi Ulum al-Qur’an, 2nd ed., vol. 1 (Beirut: Dar al-Fikr, 1980), p. 237.
  40. ^ Suyuti, al-Itqan fi Ulum al-Qur’an, 2nd ed., vol. 1 (Baydar: Manshurat al-Radi, 1343 AH), p. 177.
  41. ^ Suyuti, Tanwir al-Hawalik, 2nd ed. (Beirut: Dar al-Jayl, 1993), p. 199.
  42. Jump up to:a b c Donner, “Quran in Recent Scholarship”, 2008: p.42
  43. ^ Donner, “Quran in Recent Scholarship”, 2008: p.42-3
  44. ^ Cook, The Koran, 2000: p.119

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